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Semantic Web and applications

Internet application protocols

Internet and Web technical standards

Nine by Nine performs research, development and consulting for Internet and Web application protocols and standards, with particular regard for Semantic Web, messaging and network application security.

Following announcement of the Semantic Web core specifications as full W3C Recommendations, we have a particular focus on designing and building applications that benefit from these new standards.



Our principal technologist, Graham Klyne, has experience of network software development extending over 25 years, and over 8 years experience of Internet software development. Since 1997, he has been involved in the creation of Internet application protocol standards in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) creating specifications for Semantic Web information formats (CC/PP and RDF). Nine by Nine is a partner in iTrust, the European Union Working Group on Trust Management in Dynamic Open Systems.

Recently, Graham has worked in a senior technical capacity for Content Technologies, the company behind MIMEsweeper, the first commercially available email-borne security threat manager.

Before being involved with networking software, Graham wrote software for scientific and engineering applications. Working for Oxford Metrics Ltd (now Vicon Motion Systems), he designed and developed the first commercial 3-dimensional motion capture system, VICON. This was originally designed for applications in orthopaedic medicine but has since evolved into a very comprehensive system used in medicine, sports biomechanics, robotics, and scene synthesis for films and computer games.

Nine by Nine has a particular interest and ongoing research and development activities to employ Internet protocols and Semantic Web technologies in the design and implementation of trustworthy networked applications, particularly those concerned with ad-hoc network connectivity (wireless LANs, infra-red, Bluetooth) in domestic and public environments.

More detailed information about Graham's public and standards-related technical activities can be found at


Nine by Nine offers assistance to Internet technology developers in the following areas:


Linked to our participation in W3C and iTrust working groups, we are currently engaged in research and prototype development for Semantic Web software applications. A particular area of research is representation of provenance and trust in RDF. The software is being developed as open source, and will be published here when it becomes available. Some RDF-related notes and position papers can be found here.

Related to this is some research work into trust modelling, with a view to Grid computing, that is being conducted with Rutherford Appleton Laboratory as part of the SWAD-Europe project.

Papers and presentations

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